The 2014 Mastering Guide to Audio Formats and Delivery Mediums

Hi, I’m Justin Perkins of Mystery Room Mastering.

After writing different variations of the same email to clients over the years about what formats they need for final masters, I thought it was time put together a resource to cover as many bases as possible.

There is much more to mastering than just the sonic aspects and it varies between different release formats. It’s also gotten more complex as digital distribution evolves, CDs become the minority, and vinyl makes a comeback.

I hope you find this guide useful. Feel free to share it, leave a comment or get in touch with me if you have any questions!

iTunes (standard), Spotify, and other online stores — 16-bit/44.1k WAV files

From your mastering engineer, request WAV files directly from the mastering session, that have never been on an audio CD. These files will be submitted to an aggregator such as CD Baby, Tunecore, or The Orchard, to distribute your music to a variety of channels chosen by you.

Be aware that if proper headroom is not present, some loud masters can clip or contain overs when converted from WAV to AAC, MP3, and other compressed formats used by most online stores. More info on this below.

Mastered For iTunes — 24-bit/96k, 88.2k, 48k, or 44.1k sample rate WAV files

Some aggregators are now offering Mastered For iTunes versions of releases. This means you can submit 24-bit WAV files at sample rates higher than 44.1k to the iTunes Store.

Mastered For iTunes is not a completely separate master — it’s based on your main digital master with a few adjustments to optimize for the iTunes Store AAC format. The master files must follow other guidelines specified by Apple that certified “Mastered For iTunes” mastering studios are aware of.

You must use an approved Mastered For iTunes mastering studio in order to be eligible for an official Mastered For iTunes release. You may have to setup and pay for a separate Mastered For iTunes version of your release. Check with your online distributor/aggregator for specific details.

Bandcamp and SoundCloud — 24-bit WAV files (sample rates above 44.1k)

Files uploaded to Bandcamp and SoundCloud can be 24-bit, and a higher sampler rate than 44.1k if available from the mastering engineer, which could make for better sound quality on the resulting compressed files such as MP3s.

You can allow users to download your original higher resolution masters, or compressed MP3s of smaller size.

Be aware of possible clipping and overs that can occur after conversion by these websites and services to MP3 and other compressed formats. More info on this below.

Compact Disc — DDP image or audio CD-R master

A DDP image is the best, quickest, and easiest to work with from a mastering engineer’s standpoint. A DDP master can be easily sent via Internet, but some small duplication orders may require a physical audio CD-R master.

A CD-R master is ideally burned by your mastering engineer and tested for burn/write errors before shipping to the CD manufacturer. Check with your CD manufacturer to see if DDP works for them, or if a physical CD-R master is needed. More info on DDP is found below.

Vinyl — 24-bit WAV files (sample rates higher than 44.1k if available)

The WAV files for your vinyl pre-master can be at the native sample rate of your original mixes and/or mastering session (meaning higher than 44.1k/CD quality).

Creating a single WAV for each side of the record will ensure that no changes with the space and timing between songs can occur at the lacquer cutting stage. Sonic adjustments are often made to optimize for the vinyl format before sending it off the pressing plant or lacquer cutter. This can make or break the sound quality of your vinyl.

Your original mastering engineer should be familiar with how to optimize the audio of your vinyl pre-master for lacquer cutting. If not, finding a mastering engineer that has this experience would be beneficial.

There are a lot of variables related to vinyl audio quality, so working with engineers familiar with the process is highly recommended.

Cassette — 16-bit WAV files (sample rates higher than 44.1k in some cases)

The WAV files for your cassette pre-master can be at the native sample rate of your original mastering session if accepted by the cassette manufacturer.

Creating a single WAV for each side of the cassette (or “program”) will help ensure that no changes with the space and timing between songs can occur. You may wish to optimize audio for the cassette format, as it may not need to be as loud and compressed, and sibilance can be an issue with certain types of tape.

Check with the manufacturer for their specs.

Download Cards — MP3 (or whatever you want users to download)

This is one situation where MP3 files are usually welcomed when it comes to delivering your masters.

Most download card services simply host the files you upload to them, and don’t do any further conversions or data compression. Check your service for specifics.

Music Licensing — 16-bit/48k WAV files (with 320kbps reference MP3)

The proper format needed for licensing your music will ultimately depend on who licenses the music, and how you plan to distribute it. However, the most common audio format for video use is 16-bit/48k WAV.

Although the audio can be resampled down the line as needed, if you’re serious about submitting your music to be licensed in video productions you’ll want to ask your mastering engineer for 16-bit/48k WAV versions of your masters. This is especially true if you’ve mastered instrumental versions of your songs, which most commonly get licensed.

Acquiring 16-bit/48k versions of your masters and instrumentals from your mastering engineer should ensure the best sound quality as the audio is less likely to be resampled or converted down the line, potentially with subpar sample rate conversion software.

It’s also useful to have reference MP3s of your instrumentals for easy sending and auditioning by potential licensing clients and users.

Exceptions and Notes

Always start with the highest resolution file available and acceptable for the format in which you are distributing your music. Up-Sampling a 44.1k WAV file to 96k does not add any quality to your file. Converting an MP3 to WAV does not “add the resolution back”. Once a file is reduced or down-converted, you must go back to the source to retain the quality of your original master.

You should not convert MP3s into WAV files in order for them to be used for online distribution. Once a WAV file has been reduced to MP3 or AAC, the integrity and sound quality is gone forever. An MP3 is to audio, as a grainy, pixilated image is to photography. Once the data is stripped from a high resolution file, it cannot be brought back. Even though you can technically make an MP3 into a WAV file, you will still have a loss in quality compared to the original WAV file. This loss of quality is particularly noticeable in the high frequencies, resulting in a swirly, underwater sound depending on the size and bit-rate of the mp3.

Even if you don’t notice these artifacts on well encoded MP3 or AAC files, you will certainly notice problems when the MP3 or AAC file you converted to WAV gets converted back to MP3 or AAC again by Bandcamp, SoundCloud, or the iTunes Store.

The same is true regarding 24 and 16-bit files. Once a file is reduced to 16-bit, it can’t be successfully converted back to 24-bit. The missing bits are gone for good unless you revisit the original 24-bit versions again.

File Tagging and Online Distribution

WAV & AIFF files don’t support the large amount of metadata that an MP3 or AAC file can contain. If your mastering engineer provides WAV files for uploading to online distribution services, expect to submit the artwork and other metadata separately as you submit the audio files for online distribution. The distribution service you use will handle the metadata tagging that is seen by the end user based on the info you enter, and what is supported by the end file format.

When you purchase a song on the iTunes store for example, it is delivered to you as an AAC file (also called MPEG-4) which is considered a compressed file format similar to an MP3 but the AAC file is generated from a 16-bit/44.1k WAV file.

Each individual store and streaming service has it’s own file specs for files that the end user purchases or streams from any given service, but they are all usually generated from the same 16-bit/44.1k WAV file that you submit to your aggregator. With most aggregators, you can choose to distribute your music via iTunes Store, Amazon, Google Play, Spotify, Rdio, and the list keeps growing. There’s no reasonable way to optimize your audio uniquely for them all, but you can take care to be sure your mastered WAVs are optimized for the main stores which should translate well to nearly all.

Some popular aggregators in the US are The Orchard, CD Baby, and Tunecore. You upload your audio files and project details to the aggregator just one time, and they take care of the details regarding getting your music into the distribution channels you choose.

DDP (Disc Description Protocol)

A DDP image is basically a digital image of a compact disc that contains all the audio, track IDs, CD-Text, and ISRC codes.

DDP is not prone to the same errors that can occur with phsyical CDs and CD-Rs such as skips, scratches, and read/write errors. This is in part why it’s best to use a DDP image for your CD production master rather than a physical CD-R.

Most professional mastering software can export a mastered project to DDP format. The DDP can be sent in for CD production online, either by uploading to the website/FTP of the CD manufacturer, or by providing a direct download link to your sales person.

DDP is also useful for auditioning a final master to be sure you’re hearing the exact sound quality, and song & track sequencing as intended by the mastering engineer. It rules out any errors that can occur when working with individual WAV files, and manually assembling them in iTunes or other audio software. Most audio playback and CD burning software programs have settings for adding extra space between tracks, and some programs have settings that can alter the sound quality and overall levels which can be easy for users to overlook, resulting in an inaccurate listening experience.

It is not recommended to submit individual WAV files for CD production. This can lead to problems with song sequencing, incorrect CD-Text, lack of CD-Text, and in some cases the audio itself can be altered if files are handled improperly.

It’s easy these days for mastering studios and engineers to provide a complimentary DDP Player with a DDP master in order for clients audition and approve a master. This is ideal because the listener will be listening to the exact same file that would be used for CD replication and most online distribution services as of now. HOFA makes a DDP Player that can be purchased for $9.99 (USD) which is suggested if the mastering engineer can only supply a DDP image, but not a player for you to audition the DDP. DDP is especially useful when the mastering engineer and client are not in the same location because a DDP file can be transmitted via Internet quite easily.

ISRC Codes

An ISRC code is a digital fingerprint for each of your songs that helps keep track of airplay and other ways your music can generate royalties and credits. ISRC codes are not essential for CD and vinyl releases, but your songs will need ISRC codes in order to be sold on the iTunes Store, as well as most other online distribution channels.

Some aggregators can generate ISRC codes for you if needed when you setup online distribution. However, if you are also doing a CD release, you may want to have the ISRC codes generated before finalizing your CD master so the codes can also exist on the physical CDs.

Some mastering studios offer ISRC code generation, and you can apply via the ISRC website to generate your own ISRC codes if you prefer. Fees may apply depending on your method of operation.

Vinyl & Cassette

Ideally, your vinyl pre-master is one WAV file for each side, at the native sample rate of your mixing and mastering sessions. Some vinyl and cassette manufacturers may request that your audio masters be sent on an audio CD-R.

Audio CD-R is limited to 16-bit/44.1k sample rate, and is generally not a good way to submit, transfer, or store a master. Only use an audio CD-R for a master if absolutely necessary due to manufacturer limitations.

It’s recommended to use a manufacturer that can work directly with your 24-bit/native sample rate WAV files for vinyl projects. 16-bit/native sample rate WAV files are usually ideal for cassette duplication but your manufacturer may have specific requests and specifications.

Vinyl Projects

Using a third party lacquer cutter can improve your final product greatly.

Lacquer cutting is the first and arguably the most important step in the vinyl process after your master leaves the original mastering studio. You typically have a more open line of communication with a third party lacquer cutter versus an in-house lacquer cutter at a pressing plant. This is a big reason of why results are typically better when using a third party lacquer cutter. It’s also much cheaper and quicker to fix issues with your vinyl pre-master at the lacquer cutting stage rather than at the test pressing stage if problems arise.

Typically, when working directly with a pressing plant for your entire vinyl order, you don’t get to hear anything until the test pressing is ready, which is essentially the last third of the vinyl process. This means that any fixes will likely require major back tracking and could be costly and delay your order. When using a third party lacquer cutter, once you approve the reference lacquer, the production lacquer(s) are shipped off to the pressing plant of your choice for the remainder of the process, possibly with a stop in between for metal plating depending on who you are working with for the actual pressing.

Using a “one-stop shop” or broker for vinyl can certainly be easier and less overwhelming, but you tend to see a wider variety of audio quality depending on who you choose to work with. If using a broker for a vinyl order, it doesn’t hurt to ask who is doing the lacquer cutting to be sure they are using one of good quality.

You will also want to be aware of how long your sides are for vinyl releases. Depending on the size of the record (7”, 10”, or 12”), and the speed (RPM), you will be limited to how long each side can be before the sound quality starts to be compromised.

With vinyl, there are no hard time limits like with a compact disc. Each pressing plant and lacquer cutter has their own suggested maximum times for sides, but generally speaking, sides will sound better the shorter they are, and short sides can usually be cut louder than long sides. Long sides are susceptible to distortion (inner groove distortion), graininess near the end of the sides, and the overall level of the sides will likely be quiet. Some manufactures will not guarantee sound quality after exceeding a certain time.

For the vinyl pre-master, it may be worth removing songs from your album, or shortening some songs to avoid long sides. The longest side usually sets the level and tone of the record, so creating the shortest, most even sides will produce the best results in most cases.

Skilled lacquer cutters can sometimes produce good sounding records at long lengths, but the results usually vary depending on the source material and person doing the work. These maximum times for sides are posted for a reason and should be taken seriously if you care about the sound quality of your vinyl.

Mastered For iTunes

Only mastering studios that have been certified are allowed to provide masters for Mastered For iTunes releases. What Mastered For iTunes means is that you are submitting your mastered WAV files to the iTunes Store at 24-bit, and the highest sample rate available for your project.

Up-sampling a 44.1k/16-bit master to 96k/24-bit will not be beneficial, but if your mastering engineer can provide high sample rate, 24-bit masters, it’s something to be ready for when Apple opens up the Mastered For iTunes program up to all artists — hopefully in the near future.

The other important step in the Mastered For iTunes process is that the master is auditioned through a special encoder to be sure that your masters will not clip or contain overs when they are converted to AAC for distribution in the iTunes store. Without leaving the proper amount of headroom on loud digital masters (as most are these days), it’s fairly easy for clipping or overs to occur when your loud mastered WAV files are converted to AAC or other compressed formats such as MP3.

The severity of the clipping that occurs depends on the material, how loud it’s mastered, and other variables controlled by the mastering engineer. This is why careful testing must take place for each song within each project to qualify as Mastered For iTunes compatible. Every second of every song must be analyzed through the encoder to test for overs and the proper headroom must be set to avoid these overs throughout the course of the song, or complete album.

The most common method to prevent clipping and overs when your mastered WAV files are converted to a compressed format, is lowering the output ceiling of the final limiter in the mastering session to a certain point in order to leave enough headroom for the file conversion and data compression process.

Back when CDs were the main digital format, the standard setting for a digital limiter’s output ceiling was -0.2, to prevent distortion within cheaper CD players and playback components. It was eventually discovered that -0.2 dB is not enough headroom to prevent clipping when loud masters are converted to compressed formats such as MP3 and AAC. It’s becoming more popular to lower the final limiter output ceiling as low as -1.0 dB to prevent clipping and overs when the file is converted to a compressed format. Again, the actual clipping instances will depend on the variables of the material and how it’s mastered. Typically, you want to lower your output ceiling as little as needed, but just enough to prevent these overs when converted to MP3 or AAC.

The optimal setting is dependent on your specific material and the target compressed format. Lower quality MP3s tend to clip more easily than higher quality mp3s.

There are a variety of tools that a mastering engineer can use to know how a master will react to a certain MP3 or AAC encoding. Some popular options are Sonnox Fraunhofer Pro-Codec, Sonnox Codec Toolbox, the Encoder Checker that is now built into Wavelab 8.5, as well as tools and droplets provided for free by Apple. However, the tools provided by Apple are Mac/OS X only. The Sonnox encoder testers are plugins in VST, AAX, RTAS, and AU formats so they can run within a number of audio software applications on both Windows and Mac OSX. Sonnox Codec Toolbox has standalone version as well that can run on it’s own outside of any other audio software.

Even if you do not wish to do an official Mastered For iTunes release, it doesn’t hurt to comply with as many of the guidelines as possible. Even if you only choose to submit 16- bit/44.1k WAV files to your iTunes aggregators, you can still have your mastering engineer be sure that there is enough headroom in the WAV files you submit to avoid clipping and overs. This can result in a more pleasing sounding file for the end user that purchases your music via iTunes, as well as other stores and streaming services.

Other Channels

The Mastered For iTunes theory can be applied to most of the online distribution channels as well. However, it’s not always clear what format your WAV file gets converted to after you upload it, depending on the distribution channel, nor is there a way to test exclusively for all the various encoders your music could encounter.

It’s important to communicate to your mastering engineer, how and where you plan to distribute your music, and read the fine print on the file specifications for any given distribution service.


If you’re wondering why iTunes or other music playback software on your computer will not recognize song titles, artist name, album name, cover art and other info when you insert your audio CD, it’s because your audio CD is not registered with the Gracenote database (for iTunes support) and/or All Music (for Windows Media Player support).

It’s also possible for iTunes to believe your CD is of another artist if the total track numbers and times happen to match, which is more common with CDs with lower track totals.


The information embedded on your audio CD (self-burned, duplicated, or professionally replicated) is called CD-Text, and can only be displayed by CD players that support CD-Text. This usually includes car stereos and high-end home CD players. Most music playback software such as iTunes, Windows Media Player and Winamp can’t read or display the CD-Text embedded on your audio CD.

Because of the way Gracenote and All Music databases work, your computer needs to be connected to the Internet to match and retrieve data for any given audio CD that is inserted. For example, even if you insert a popular CD that is registered with the databases into your computer, it will only automatically retrieve the CD info if the computer is connected to the Internet. It is not currently possible to embed the artwork or any other metadata info directly onto a burned audio CD or the production master for your CD. CD-Text and Gracenote and All Music metadata are two separate things.

Until the CD’s info is submitted to Gracenote and All Music, your computer’s software will only read the songs/tracks as Track 01, Track 02, etc. This is normal.

The way that Gracenote and All Music identify an audio CD is by analyzing the number of tracks, their exact lengths, and finding a match in their database. This is why it’s not uncommon to see a few possible matches when you insert a CD with only a few tracks. The odds of the number of tracks and their lengths matching an existing CD are much greater for CDs with few tracks. It’s important to wait until you have a final master to submit the info to Gracenote and All Music, as sometimes track lengths can change slightly throughout the mastering process as changes are made.

Once you have a final master, you can submit the info to Gracenote online.

Submissions to All Music must be done by mailing them a physical copy of your CD. More info here.

Once the info is submitted, it can take roughly 48 hours to be active via Gracenote, and 4-6 weeks for All Music (Windows Media Player).

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Justin Perkins

Justin Perkins

Justin is a mastering engineer from Milwaukee, WI. More at and
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  • manyanimals

    You may follow this simple guide to download and convert SoundCloud songs to MP3, WAV, FLAC, at Allavsoft

  • Ted Smith

    Thank you for the guide on audio formats. I am trying to create my own CD that I can put on iTunes and I have no idea what format I should put the song files in. I didn’t know that I should put the files in 16-bit/44.1k WAV format. How exactly do I do that?

  • Justin Perkins

    Hi Ted,

    If you are submitting your album to a digital distributor for sale on the iTunes Store (or Spotify, Amazon etc.), you’ll need a 16-bit/44.1k WAV file of each song. There is no need to make a CD first, ideally your mastering software (or digital audio workstation) can render files directly to your hard disk at 16-bit/44.1k. Don’t forget to dither from 24-bit to 16-bit as the very last step.

    If you were to release the album as a special “Mastered For iTunes”(MFiT) release, a MFiT certified mastering engineer could prepare 24-bit WAV files at a sample rate higher than 44.1k if you are already working above 44.1k. MFiT means that you can submit higher resolution files for the AAC/m4a files to be created from. AAC/m4a is the file type that users received when purchasing a song on the iTunes Store. It is similar to mp3 in that it’s a smaller file compared to WAV. They can sound pretty good if they are properly encoded from a good source.

    You also want to be sure to not convert an mp3 back to WAV because once a WAV is converted to mp3, you cannot get the data loss (and sound quality) back. Even if your ears can’t detect a difference between mp3 and WAV, you will surely notice a difference once that mp3 you converted to WAV is converted back again to AAC/m4a or mp3 by the digital distributor.

  • mirorfloydka

    This is really a nice article, but there are a few questions I was asking that you didn’t answer. I am having a hard time getting the metadata to read correctly in windows explorer. Though I changed several metadata fields to 2015 when I made my wav file, I just noticed that Windows states the date as 2011.

  • Mona Bode

    hi i have a question..Im trying to put 24 tracks on a cd and it keeps asking to put it on two cd’s…how do i put all of the tracks on one cd?

    • Justin Perkins

      Hi Mona,

      What software are you using make the CDs? It’s likely that your 24 tracks is too long to be on an audio CD (74 minute or 80 minute max time depending on variables)

      If your 24 tracks are longer than 74 or 80 minutes, you may have no other choice besides 2 CDs.

    • Mona Bode

      ok so how is it some cd’s we buy may have 20 tracks on it….do i have to compress it ?im not sure…i pray theres a way…oh I’m using my iTunes

    • Justin Perkins

      It’s not about the number of tracks, it’s about the total length (minutes) of the tracks.

      CDs have a maximum time limit of 80 minutes, 74 minutes if you’re using older CD burners and CD-R discs.

      You could make a data CD of mp3s but not all CD players can read data discs. There is a difference between a data CD and an audio CD.

    • Mona Bode

      i know that…and most cd players can’t read data…ok thank you..i thought there would be some kind of way but thanks a lot…have a great day justin 🙂

    • Justin Perkins

      In other words, an audio CD could have 99 tracks if they’re all VERY short tracks that fit under 80 minutes.